■ 問題



B You are in a student group preparing a poster for a presentation
contest. You have been using the following passage to create the poster.

[A Brief History of Units of Length]

Since ancient times, people have measured things. Measuring helps humans
say how long, far, big, or heavy something is with some kind of accuracy.
While weight and volume are important for the exchange of food, it can be
argued that one of the most useful measurements is length because it is
needed to calculate area, which helps in the exchange, protection, and
taxation of property.

Measuring systems would often be based on or related to the human body.
One of the earliest known measuring systems was the cubit, which was
created around the 3rd millennium BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia. One cubit
was the length of a man's forearm from the elbow to the tip of the middle
finger, which according to one royal standard was 524 millimeters (mm).
In addition, the old Roman foot (296 mm), which probably came from the
Egyptians, was based on a human foot.

A unit of measurement known as the yard probably originated in Britain
after the Roman occupation and it is said to be based on the double cubit.
Whatever its origin, there were several different yards in use in Britain.
Each one was a different length until the 12th century when the yard was
standardized as the length from King Henry I's nose to his thumb on his
outstretched arm. But it was not until the 14th century that official
documents described the yard as being divided into three equal parts
-- three feet -- with one foot consisting of 12 inches. While this
description helped standardize the inch and foot, it wasn't until the late
15th century, when King Henry VII distributed official metal samples of feet
and yards, that people knew for certain their true length. Over the years,
a number of small adjustments were made until the International Yard and
Pound Agreement of 1959 finally defined the standard inch, foot, and yard
as 25.4 mm, 304.8 mm, and 914.4 mm respectively.

The use of the human body as a standard from which to develop a measuring
system was not unique to western cultures. The traditional Chinese unit of
length called chi -- now one-third of a meter -- was originally defined as
the length from the tip of the thumb to the outstretched tip of the middle
finger, which was around 200 mm. However, over the years it increased in
length and became known as the Chinese foot. Interestingly, the Japanese
shaku, which was based on the chi, is almost the same as one standard foot.
It is only 1.8 mm shorter.

The connection between the human body and measurement can also be found in
sailing. The fathom (6 feet), the best-known unit for measuring the depth
of the sea in the English-speaking world, was historically an ancient Greek
measurement. It was not a very accurate measurement as it was based on the
length of rope a sailor could extend from open arm to open arm. Like many
other British and American units, it was also standardized in 1959.

The metric system, first described in 1668 and officially adopted by the
French government in 1799, has now become the dominant measuring system
worldwide. This system has slowly been adopted by many countries as either
their standard measuring system or as an alternative to their traditional
system. While the metric system is mainly used by the scientific, medical,
and industrial professions, traditional commercial activities still continue
to use local traditional measuring systems. For example, in Japan, window
widths are measured in ken (6 shaku).

Once, an understanding of the relationship between different measures was
only something trades and tax officials needed to know. However, now that
international online shopping has spread around the world, we all need to
know a little about other countries' measuring systems so that we know how
much, or how little, of something we are buying.


問1 When you were checking the statements under the first poster heading,
everyone in the group agreed that one suggestion did not fit well. Which of
the following should you not include? [ 44 ]

問2 Under the second poster heading, you need to write statements
concerning units of length. Choose the two below which are most accurate.
(The order does not matter.) [ 45 ]・[ 46 ]
{1} Inch and meter were defined by the 1959 International Yard and Pound
{2} The chi began as a unit related to a hand and gradually became longer
over time.
{3} The cubit is one of the oldest units based on the length of a man's
{4} The length of the current standard yard was standardized by King Henry
{5} The origin of the fathom was from the distance between a man's open
{6} The origin of the Roman foot can be traced back to Great Britain.

問3 Under the third poster heading, you want a graphic to visualize some
of the units in the passage. Which graph best represents the different
length of the units from short (at the top) to long (at the bottom)? [ 47 ]

問4 Under the last poster heading, your group wants to add a statement
about today's units based on the passage. Which of the following is the
most appropriate? [ 48 ]
{1} Although the metric system has become dominant worldwide, traditional
measuring systems continue to play certain roles in local affairs.
{2} Science and medicine use traditional units today to maintain
consistency despite the acceptance of a widespread standardized measurement
{3} The increase in cross-border online shopping has made the metric system
the world standard.
{4} Today's units, such as the inch, foot, and yard, are based on the chi,
whose origin is related to a part of the human body.

=========================== お知らせ1 ===============================





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■ スラッシュリーディング

B You are in a student group / preparing a poster
/ for a presentation contest.
あなたはある学生グループに入っている / ポスターを準備している
/ あるプレゼンテーションコンテストのための

You have been using / the following passage / to create the poster.
あなたは使っている / 次の文章を / そのポスターを作るために

[A Brief History / of Units of Length]
手短な歴史 / 長さの単位の

Since ancient times, / people have measured / things.
古代から / 人々は測ってきた / 物を

Measuring helps humans say / how long, / far, / big,
/ or heavy / something is / with some kind / of accuracy.
測ることは人間が言うことを助ける / どのくらい長いか / 遠いか / 大きいか
/ あるいは重いか / 何かが / 何かの種類で / 正確性の



=========================== お知らせ2 ===============================


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=========================== お知らせ3 ===============================








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