2022年12月31日

本日配信のメルマガ。2022年共通テスト英語第6問B

本日配信のメルマガでは、2022年大学入試共通テスト英語第6問Bを解説します。


【高校英語】共通テストの英文解釈
http://www.mag2.com/m/0001641009.html


■ 問題

第6問

B You are in a student group preparing a poster for a scientific
presentation contest with the theme "What we should know in order to
protect the environment." You have been using the following passage to
create the poster.

┌―――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――┐
|            [Recycling Plastic]              |
|          ――What You Need to Know――           |
|                                   |
| The world is full of various types of plastic. Look around, and you |
|will see dozens of plastic items. Look closer and you will notice a  |
|recycling symbol on them. In Japan, you might have seen the first   |
|symbol in Figure 1 below, but the United States and Europe have a more|
|detailed classification. These recycling symbols look like a triangle |
|of chasing pointers, or sometimes a simple triangle with a number from|
|one to seven inside. This system was started in 1998 by the Society of|
|the Plastics Industry in the US, but since 2008 it has been      |
|administrated by an international standards organization, ASTM    |
|(American Society for Testing and Materials) International. Recycling |
|symbols provide important data about the chemical composition of   |
|plastic used and its recyclability. However, a plastic recycling   |
|symbol on an object does not always mean that the item can be     |
|recycled. It only shows what type of plastic it is made from and that |
|it might be recyclable.                        |
|                                   |
| Figure 1. Plastic recycling symbols                 |
|                                   |
| (図は省略します)                          |
|                                   |
| So, what do these numbers mean? One group (numbers 2, 4, and 5) is |
|considered to be safe for the human body, while the other group    |
|(numbers 1, 3, 6, and 7) could be problematic in certain       |
|circumstances. Let us look at the safer group first.         |
| High-density Polyethylene is a recycle-type 2 plastic and is    |
|commonly called HDPE. It is non-toxic and can be used in the human  |
|body for heart valves and artificial joints. It is strong and can be |
|used at temperatures as low as -40℃ and as high as 100℃. HDPE can be|
|reused without any harm and is also suitable for beer-bottle cases,  |
|milk jugs, chairs and toys. Type 2 products can be recycled several  |
|times. Type 4 products are made from Low-density Polyethylene (LDPE). |
|They are safe to use and are flexible. LDPE is used for squeezable  |
|bottles, and bread wrapping. Currently, very little Type 4 plastic is |
|recycled. Polypropylene (PP), a Type 5 material, is the second-most  |
|widely produced plastic in the world. It is light, non-stretching, and|
|has a high resistance to impact, heat, and freezing. It is suitable  |
|for furniture, food containers, and polymer banknotes such as the   |
|Australian dollar. Only 3% of Type 5 is recycled.           |
| Now let us look at the second group, Types 1, 3, 6, and 7. These are|
|more challenging because of the chemicals they contain or the     |
|difficulty in recycling them. Recycle-type 1 plastic is commonly known|
|as PETE (Polyethylene Terephthalate), and is used mainly in food and |
|beverage containers. PETE containers ― or PET as it is often written |
|in Japan ― should only be used once as they are difficult to clean  |
|thoroughly. Also, they should not be heated above 70℃ as this can  |
|cause some containers to soften and change shape. Uncontaminated PETE |
|is easy to recycle and can be made into new containers, clothes, or  |
|carpets, but if PETE is contaminated with Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), it|
|can make it unrecyclable. PVC, Type 3, is thought to be one of the  |
|least recyclable plastics known. It should only be disposed of by   |
|professionals and never set fire to at home or in the garden. Type 3 |
|plastic is found in shower curtains, pipes, and flooring. Type 6,   |
|Polystyrene (PS) or Styrofoam as it is often called, is hard to    |
|recycle and catches fire easily. However, it is cheap to produce and |
|lightweight. It is used for disposable drinking cups, instant noodle |
|containers, and other food packaging. |Type 7 plastics (acrylics,  |
|nylons, and polycarbonates) are difficult to recycle. Type 7 plastics |
|are often used in the manufacture of vehicle parts such as seats,   |
|dashboards, and bumpers.                       |
| Currently, only about 20% of plastic is recycled, and approximately |
|55% ends up in a landfill. Therefore, knowledge about different types |
|of plastic could help reduce waste and contribute to an increased   |
|awareness of the environment.                     |
└―――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――┘

Your presentation poster draft:
┌―――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――┐
|  ┌――――――――――――――――――――――――――――┐   |
|  |   Do you know the plastic recycling symbols?    |   |
|  └――――――――――――――――――――――――――――┘   |
|[What are plastic recycling symbols?]                 |
| [ 44 ]                               |
|                                   |
|[Types of plastic and recycling information]             |
|┌――┬―――┬――――――――――――┬―――――――――――――┐|
||Type|Symbol|   Description    |    Products     ||
|├――┼―――┼――――――――――――┼―――――――――――――┤|
|| 1 |   |This type of plastic is |drink bottles, food    ||
||  |   |common and generally   |containers, etc.     ||
||  |   |easy to recycle.    |             ||
|├――┼―――┼――――――――――――┼―――――――――――――┤|
|| 2 |   |This type of plastic is |heart valves, artificial ||
||  |   |easily recycled [ 45 ]. |joints, chairs toys, etc. ||
|├――┼―――┼――――――――――――┼―――――――――――――┤|
|| 3 |   |This type of plastic is |shower curtains, pipes,  ||
||  |   |[ 46 ].         |flooring, etc.      ||
|├――┼―――┼――――――――――――┼―――――――――――――┤|
|〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜〜|
|※Symbolは省略しました。                       |
|                                   |
|[Plastics with common properties]                   |
|  ┌――――――――――――――――――――――――――――┐   |
|  |[ 47 ]                         |   |
|  |[ 48 ]                         |   |
|  └――――――――――――――――――――――――――――┘   |
|                                   |
└―――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――┘

問1 Under the first poster heading, your group wants to introduce the
plastic recycling symbols as explained in the passage. Which of the
following is the most appropriate? [ 44 ]
{1} They are symbols that rank the recyclability of plastics and other
related problems.
{2} They provide information on the chemical make-up and recycling options
of the plastic.
{3} They tell the user which standards organization gave them certificates
for general use.
{4} They were introduced by ASTM and developed by the Society of the
Plastics Industry.

問2 You have been asked to write descriptions of Type 2 and Type 3
plastics. Choose the best options for [ 45 ] and [ 46 ].

Type 2 [ 45 ]
{1} and commonly known as a single-use plastic
{2} and used at a wide range of temperatures
{3} but harmful to humans
{4} but unsuitable for drink containers

Type 3 [ 46 ]
{1} difficult to recycle and should not be burned in the yard
{2} flammable; however, it is soft and cheap to produce
{3} known to be a not-toxic product
{4} well known for being easily recyclable

問3 You are making statements about some plastics which share common
properties. According to the article, which two of the following are
appropriate? (The order does not matter.) [ 47 ]・[ 48 ]
{1} Boiling water (100℃) can be served in Type 1 and Type 6 plastic
containers.
{2} It is easy to recycle products with Type 1, 2, and 3 logos.
{3} Products with the symbols 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 are suitable for food or
drink containers.
{4} Products with Type 5 and Type 6 marking are light in weight.
{5} Type 4 and 5 plastics are heat resistant and are widely recycled.
{6} Type 6 and 7 plastics are easy to recycle and environmentally friendly.


※一部記号は省略、マーク部分の□や下線部は[ ]、マル1は{1}で表記しています。

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=========================== お知らせ1 ===============================

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■ スラッシュリーディング

B You are in a student group / preparing a poster
/ for a scientific presentation contest / with the theme
/ "What we should know / in order to protect / the environment."
あなたはある学生グループに入っている / ポスターを準備する
/ 科学のプレゼンテーションコンテストの / 〜というテーマの
/ 私たちは何を知るべきか / 守るために / 環境を

You have been using / the following passage / to create the poster.
あなたは使っている / 次の文章を / そのポスターを作るために

┌―――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――┐
|            [Recycling Plastic]
           [プラスチックのリサイクル]
|          ――What You Need to Know――
           ――知る必要があること――

 The world is full / of various types / of plastic.
世界はいっぱいだ / 様々なタイプで / プラスチックの

Look around, / and / you will see / dozens of plastic items.
見回しなさい / そして / あなたは見るでしょう / たくさんのプラスチック製品を

Look closer / and / you will notice / a recycling symbol
/ on them.
よく見なさい / そして / あなたは気づくでしょう / リサイクルシンボルを
/ それらの上に


(以下略)


(有料版では、解説の続きも掲載しています)
 http://www.mag2.com/m/0001641009.html

━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━
=========================== お知らせ2 ===============================

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解説の続きは、本日21時配信予定の

【高校英語】共通テストの英文解釈
 http://www.mag2.com/m/0001641009.html

に掲載します!
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 mm@a-ema.com http://www.a-ema.com/k/ https://twitter.com/A_EMA_RYU
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