本日配信のメルマガ。2023年共通テスト追試英語第6問A 完成



■ 問題



A You belong to an English discussion group. Each week, members read an
article, create a summary, and make a challenging quiz question to share.
For the next meeting, you read the following article.

Getting to Know Aquatic Species

The mysteries of the deep blue sea have fascinated ocean-watchers for
millennia. Aquatic beings, however, cannot easily get to us. What if we go
to them? Despite what you may expect, certain ocean animals will come right
up to you. Dan McSweeney, a Hawaii-based underwater research photographer,
tells a fascinating story. While he was studying whales underwater, one came
charging at him. Whales are huge, so he was worried. The whale stopped,
opened its mouth, and “passed” him some tuna. He accepted the gift.
McSweeney believes that because of the air bubbles coming from his tank,
the whale recognized him as a similar animal and offered the sashimi. Later,
the whale came back, and McSweeney returned the food.

Friendly interactions with dolphins or whales are possible, but how about
octopuses? Science fiction sometimes describes aliens as looking like
octopuses, so this animal group "cephalopods," which means "head-feet," may
be perceived as being distant from humans. Yet, if you learn more about
them, you might be convinced there is the possibility of interaction.
Octopuses have long tentacles (arms/legs) extending from soft round bodies.
Besides touch and motion, each tentacle experiences smell and taste and has
sucking disks, called suckers, that grab and manipulate things. Their eyes,
like two independent cameras, can move 80° and focus on two different
things at once. UC Berkeley researcher, Alexander Stubbs, confirms that
while octopuses sense light and color differently from humans, they do
recognize color changes. These features might indicate that they are
intelligent enough to interact with us. In fact, an article in Everyday
Mysteries begins: "Question. Can an octopus get to know you? Answer. Yes."

Octopuses are known to "return your gaze" when you look at them. They may
even remember you. This notion was tested by Roland C. Anderson and his
colleagues, who conducted experiments with two similar-looking people
wearing the same uniforms. The friendly person, who had fed and socialized
with them, got a completely different reaction from the cephalopods than
the other person who had not.

When taken from their natural habitat, octopuses can be mischievous, so
watch out. They can push the lids off their tanks, escape, and go for a
walk. Scientists sometimes get surprise visits. A paper from the Naples
Zoological Station, written in 1959, talks about trying to teach three
octopuses to pull a lever down for food. Two of them, Albert and Bertram,
cooperated with the experiment, but Charles, a clever cephalopod, refused
to do so. He shot water at the scientists and ended the experiment by
breaking the equipment.

If you are interested in seeing their natural behavior and interactions,
getting into the sea and having them come to you might work better. They may
even raise a tentacle to motion you over. Around 2007, Peter Godfrey-Smith,
a philosophy professor teaching at Harvard University, was home on vacation
in Sydney, Australia. Exploring in the ocean, he came across a giant
cephalopod. Godfrey-Smith was so impressed by the behavior he witnessed that
he started developing philosophy theories based on his observations.
Determined to find out what humans could learn from cephalopods,
Godfrey-Smith let them guide him. On one ocean trip, another cephalopod
took Godfrey-Smith's colleague by the hand on a 10-minute tour of the
octopus's home, "as if he were being led across the sea floor by a very
small, eight-legged child!"

How can you get sea creatures to come to you if you don't swim? The Kahn
family has solved this with "Coral World" in Eilat, Israel. The lowest floor
of the building is actually constructed in the Red Sea, creating a "human
display." Rather than the sea-life performances at many aquariums, you find
yourself in a "people tank," where curious fish and sea creatures, swimming
freely in the ocean, come to look at you. To make a good impression, you
may want to wear nice clothes.

Your summary:

Getting to Know Aquatic Species

General information
The author mainly wants to say that [ 39 ].

Human-octopus interaction
Anderson's experiment suggests octopuses can [ 40 ].
The Naples Zoological Station experiment suggests octopuses can [ 41 ].
Godfrey-Smith's story suggests octopuses can be friendly.

The Kahn family
Established Coral World with the idea of [ 42 ]

Your quiz question:

Which of the following does not represent a story or episode from the article?

Answer [ 43 ]

問1 Choose the best option for [ 39 ].

{1} a good place where people can interact with octopuses is the ocean
{2} eye contact is a key sign of friendship between different species
{3} interactions with sea creatures can be started by either side
{4} people should keep sea creatures at home to make friends with them

問2 Choose the best options for [ 40 ] and [ 41 ].

{1} be a good source for creating philosophical theories
{2} be afraid of swimmers when they get close to their home
{3} be uncooperative with humans in a laboratory setting
{4} compete with other octopuses if they have chances to get treats
{5} recognize that someone they have met before is kind
{6} touch, smell, taste, and sense light and color like humans

問3 Choose the best option for [ 42 ].

{1} attracting more people with a unique aquarium
{2} creating a convenient place to swim with sea life
{3} raising more intelligent and cooperative octopuses
{4} reversing the roles of people and sea creatures

問4 The answer to your quiz question is [ 43 ].

{1} A
{2} B
{3} C
{4} D

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■ スラッシュリーディング

A You belong / to an English discussion group.
あなたは属する / ある英語のディスカッショングループに

Each week, / members read an article, / create a summary, / and
/ make a challenging quiz question / to share.
毎週 / メンバーはある記事を読み / 要約を作成し / そして
/ 難しいクイズ問題を作る / シェアするための

For the next meeting, / you read the following article.
次のミーティングのために / あなたは次の記事を読む

Getting to Know Aquatic Species

The mysteries / of the deep blue sea / have fascinated ocean-watchers
/ for millennia.
その神秘は / 深く青い海の / 海を観察する人々を魅了してきた
/ 数千年にわたって



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